Knitting Methods: comparing Western, Eastern Uncrossed and Combination knitting

eastern uncrossed knitting (stockinette stitch)

western knitting (stockinette stitch)

The three factors that will be explained in this article (stitch mount, direction of yarn wrap, and needle direction) constitute the major differences in knitting methods. Other considerations, such as which hand the working yarn is held in (in the right for “English” or “throwing,” or in the left for “picking” or “Continental” style) are really just differences in style/technique, and while they are worth considering, they do not really affect how the actual stitch is manipulated.

Although Western (or “normal”) knitting and Eastern Uncrossed methods are primarily going to be considered here, there are other methods as well … notably “Combined” or “Combination” knitting. As you might expect, Combined knitting is a combination of both Western and Eastern methods (and although there is a lot of misinformation floating around that seems to indicate otherwise, Combination knitting and Eastern Uncrossed are not the same thing).

The pictures above show two swatches of stockinette – one knit using the Eastern Uncrossed method, and the other knit using the “normal” Western method. (As a side note, the naming for these is incredibly stupid, but it seems to be how people are describing it, so it’s what we’ll have to go with). As you probably noticed, the swatches look pretty much the same … and they are. One difference is that the yarn itself appears more tightly spun on the Western swatch, whereas it seems looser on the Eastern Uncrossed swatch. This has to do with two factors – the direction the yarn itself was spun (yarn can be spun with either an “S” or “Z” twist), and the direction that the yarn is wrapped in each method (more on that later).

Western knitting and Eastern Uncrossed are more or less opposites of each other, and both methods produce the same result. The “uncrossed” in Eastern Uncrossed is meant to indicate that, like normal Western knitting, the stitches are not twisted or “crossed,” (standard “Eastern” knitting purportedly produces a twisted stitch … though as another side note, this whole “East,” “West” business as it relates to actual geographic locations and people is vague at best). More on twisted stitches later …

Since most patterns are written assuming that all knitters use Western methods, Eastern Uncrossed and Combination knitters will need to modify patterns in order to knit them properly. This can be challenging at times, but I am hoping this information will help out ^_^

In order to understand the differences in knitting methods, we have to look at 3 factors …

1. Stitch Mount

TOP: Eastern Uncrossed stitch mount
BOTTOM: Western stitch mount

This refers to how the loops sit or are “seated” on the needle. One side (or “leg”) of the loop will rest slightly more forward (towards the tip of the needle) … this is the “leading leg.” Sometimes it can be hard to see which leg is more forward, but if you pull slightly on the working yarn, the leading leg will move forward and be more obvious. The stitch mount is determined by the direction the yarn was wrapped when that stitch was made on the previous row (see #2 below).

EASTERN UNCROSSED: stitches are mounted with the leading leg in back
WESTERN: stitches are mounted with the leading leg in front

2. Direction of Yarn Wrap

This is closely related to stitch mount, as the direction you wrap the yarn will determine the stitch mount. If you wrap the yarn counter-clockwise, the resulting loop will be mounted with the leading leg in front (Western mount), and if you wrap it clockwise the loop will have the leading leg in back (Eastern Uncrossed mount). Note: when I refer to “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise,” I mean the direction the yarn is wrapped around the needle when looking straight at the tip.

EASTERN UNCROSSED: yarn is always wrapped clockwise
WESTERN: yarn is always wrapped counter-clockwise

3. Needle Direction

The final consideration is the direction the needle enters the loop … whether it enters through the front or back of the loop, and whether you approach the loop from the left or the right. In general, Western stitches are worked into the front of the loop, and Eastern Uncrossed stitches are worked into the back of the loop. The direction the needle is inserted (from the right or from the left) will vary depending on what kind of stitch you are making (knit stitch vs. purl, etc).

TOP: Eastern Uncrossed knit stitch
BOTTOM: Western knit stitch

For a knit stitch, you will insert the needle on whichever side the loop “opens up” towards (determined by the stitch mount). For Western knitting, the leading leg is the front one, which means the loop sits angled with the left side more open (facing towards you) … so you will insert the needle on that side. For Eastern Uncrossed, it is the opposite – the right side of the loop is angled towards you, so that is the side you knit into.
Purl stitches are the reverse of knit stitches, so for Western you would insert the needle from the right, and Eastern Uncrossed would go in from the left (still keeping in mind that Western stitches are worked into the front, and Eastern Uncrossed will be worked from behind).

EASTERN UNCROSSED: stitches are worked into the back loop, and the needle inserted from the right for knit stitches, and from the left for purl stitches

WESTERN: stitches are worked into the front loop, and the needle inserted from the left for knit stitches, and from the right for purl stitches

Twisted Stitches

A variation in any of the preceding factors (within a given method) will usually result in a twisted stitch. For example, if in Western knitting you knit into the back loop instead of the front (keeping other factors for that method the same), then the result would be a twisted stitch.

LEFT: normal untwisted stitches
RIGHT: twisted stitches

You can also produce a twisted stitch by changing the direction that you wrap the yarn. This changes the direction of the stitch mount, and if (when you come to that loop again), you work the stitch as you normally would for a given method, then the result will be twisted. The exception to this is Combined knitting, which manages to avoid twisted stitches by knitting into the back leg with a counter-clockwise wrap, while purling into the front leg with a clockwise wrap.
However, twisted stitches are not really “bad”… sometimes they are used intentionally to create an interesting design. Although a stitch can become twisted by reversing the direction you wrap the yarn, the effect is not immediate, and changing your normal yarn-wrapping direction is pretty much never called for. Instead, a twisted stitch is worked by reversing the way you insert the needle … so for Western knitting, you will be instructed to Ktbl (knit through the back loop … much like a normal Eastern Uncrossed knit stitch). Eastern Uncrossed knitters who are modifying a pattern written for Western knitters can replace “Ktbl” with “Ktfl” (knit through the front loop … like a normal Western knit stitch). Likewise “Ptbl” (purl through the back loop) can be replaced with “Ptfl” (purl through the front loop).

Directional Decreases: SSK vs. K2TOG

In Western Knitting, a SSK (slip-slip-knit)* produces a left leaning decrease (\), and K2TOG (knit 2 together) produces a right leaning decrease (/) [when viewed from the right side of the fabric]. In Eastern Uncrossed, this is exactly the opposite – SSK leans right, and K2TOG leans left. The reason this is, is because Western SSK is basically the same thing as an Eastern Uncrossed K2TOG … the only difference is the direction you wrap the yarn (still always counter-clockwise for Western, and clockwise for Eastern Uncrossed). What you are actually doing when you slip the two loops is reversing the stitch mount … so in Western, the stitch mount now looks like it normally does in Eastern Uncrossed, and vice versa. Then the “knit” part of the SSK (and this has always bugged me) is always done the opposite of what would usually be done for either method.** So in Western, the last part of SSK is done by “knitting” the two loops together by going into the back loops from the right***, and into the front loops from the left for Eastern Uncrossed. So that is why the decreases for Western and Eastern Uncrossed slant opposite directions … what you are doing when you do a Western SSK is basically the same thing as an Eastern Uncrossed K2TOG, and a Western K2TOG is the same as an Eastern Uncrossed SSK.

*Note 1: In Western knitting you “slip” a stitch knit-wise (from the left, insert your needle as if to knit, but just slip it off onto the right needle). This flips the loop around, reversing the stitch mount. To do the same thing in Eastern Uncrossed, you need to “slip” your stitches purl-wise (insert your needle as if to purl, from the back-left, and slip it off onto the right needle)
**Note 2: The word “knit” is used both as a noun (as in a piece of material, or the physical stitch), and as a verb (to knit a stitch) … however, as a verb, it can get confusing. I have found it best not to think of it as an ironclad set of actions. As we have seen with slip-slip-“knit,” the “knit” is not actually performed the same way as your method’s normal “knit” stitch … however, the resulting stitch is “knit” in the sense that when you look at it, the loops that were on the left needle have flipped towards the back of the fabric (creating a horizontal bump on the backside). So try instead to think of “knit” as meaning “the thing you do to get the loop to flip towards the back,” and “purl” as “that thing you do to get the loop to flip towards the front” … and as you’ve already figured out, there is more than one way to get that job done.
***Note 3: Western knitters often take a shortcut when doing SSK … instead of moving the slipped stitches back onto the left needle, they move the left needle into the loops on the right. However, it’s essentially the same thing.

TIP: If you have a tendency to forget which direction SSK and K2TOG lean, just remember that for either method (Western or Eastern Uncrossed), the slant will lean the same direction as your right hand needle when you are making the stitch. Eastern Uncrossed K2TOG has the needle coming from the right and angling up towards the left, so this is the same angle that the slant will have (so long as you’re looking at the right side of the fabric). Western knitters will K2TOG by entering the loops from the left and have the needle angling up towards the right (when you’re coming from the left side you’ll probably have to exaggerate the direction you are holding needle in order to see this clearly), so a Western K2TOG will lean towards the right. As I mentioned before, the “knit” of SSK is always worked from the opposite direction from your “normal knit,” so the slant of SSK will lean the opposite direction.

Another thing to keep in mind is that the direction of the decrease does not always make a difference. In lace patterns, it will usually be necessary for Eastern Uncrossed knitters to swap SSK and K2TOG … however, sometimes you are decreasing just for the sake of making 2 stitches into 1 (and not to create a design) … and because K2TOG is generally faster and easier than SSK, it is generally preferred when the direction of the slant is not an issue.


Below is a table summarizing the basic differences between methods – Western (“normal”) knitting, Eastern Uncrossed, and Combined (or Combination) knitting.

stitch Western Eastern Uncrossed Combination/Combined
KNIT leading leg in front; knit into front leg from left to right, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise leading leg in back; knit into back leg from right to left, wrapping yarn clockwise leading leg in back; knit into back leg from right to left, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise
PURL leading leg in front; purl into front leg from right to left, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise leading leg in back; purl into back leg from left to right, wrapping yarn clockwise leading leg in front; purl into front leg from right to left, wrapping yarn clockwise
LEFT SLANT DEC (\) SSK: slip 2 stitches knit-wise (reversing the stitch mount) and transfer back to the left needle, knit the stitches together through the back loops from right to left, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise K2TOG: knit 2 together (through the back loops from right to left, wrapping yarn clockwise) K2TOG: knit 2 together (through the back loops from right to left, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise)
RIGHT SLANT DEC (/) K2TOG: knit 2 together (through the front loops from left to right), wrapping yarn counter-clockwise SSK: slip 2 stitches purl-wise (reversing the stitch mount) and transfer back to the left needle, knit the stitches together through the front loops from left to right, wrapping yarn clockwise SSK: slip 2 stitches (reverse the stitch mount), transfer back to the left needle, knit stitches together through front from left to right, wrapping yarn counter-clockwise

17 thoughts on “Knitting Methods: comparing Western, Eastern Uncrossed and Combination knitting

    • Ha! Me too-another combined since childhood. But I thought my mom invented the method! I do get tired of folks telling me I must be twisting my stitches. And I figured out the decrease leans myself. I wish I had found this a few years ago. It might have saved me some aggravation.

    • Thank you for the Eastern Uncrossed tips! I have taken several knitting classes over the years, and I knew I knit ‘funny’ but I never knew it had a name! I took a short row work shop and the instructor ‘diagnosed’ me.

  1. I have learned a lot (intellectually though not manually (yet). I am planning to make either Purl Bee’s Linen stitch, Fisherman’s Rib, or Easy Mistake Stitch scarf. Which method do you think be best for each of them.
    Thank you so much!
    P.S. Of the three scarves and their methods, which would be the easiest to learn (i.e. Xmas deadline!)

    • Hi Enid,

      The knitting method you choose to use is largely based on personal preference. Personally, I have never been comfortable knitting Western style (it feels awkward), so I knit Eastern Uncrossed. I have yet to come across a pattern that can’t be knit with this method, however, because it is less common, and since most patterns & tutorials are shown using Western methods, you may find it easier to go with a method which has tutorials/resources that are more readily available.

      As far as the best method for the 3 patterns mentioned, all 3 can definitely be done using Western or Eastern Uncrossed methods … and most likely Combination as well (I am just less familiar with Combination, and since it alternates stitch mount, some patterns may be more likely to produce unexpected/twisted stitch results if you don’t know what to look out for).

      Your pattern choices all look like good options for beginners. The last one is perhaps the most straightforward, but Fisherman’s Rib would also be easy once you have the knit one below technique down. The linen stitch is maybe just a bit more complex/time consuming, but is very do-able as well. As a note on the linen stitch … if you are knitting that pattern using the Eastern Uncrossed method, you will want to follow the pattern exactly as it is written (just using the Eastern Uncrossed “knit” and “purl” stitches). You do not need to reverse or modify the WYIB and WYIF instructions.

      I would recommend you try knitting a small swatch of each pattern to see which one feels the quickest and easiest since you are on a tight deadline 😉

      Best of luck!

  2. I’ve got to say, this is the best explanation I’ve come across, many thanks! I still have a question : if this applies when knitting flat, would there be any differences while knitting in the round for any of these methods?

    • Combination knitter here, and i do a lot of knitting in the round. I know this is an old question but since it is a good one and one that use to confuse me too I thought i’d try to answer. The short(ish) answer is, for all-east or all-west knitting, there are no differences/modifcations between flat and in the round. But with combination knitting, there often is (sort of)–because the direction of stitch mounts change based on whether a stitch was formed by knit or purl on the previous row. So for one example, to do ribbing flat, I will be knitting into eastern mounted sts and purling into western ones, every row. but to do ribbing in the round, i will knit into western mounted sts and purl into eastern mounted ones. This actually sounds more complicated than it is to do, i swear! All i need to remember is to always strike the leading leg of the stitch when entering the loop–regardless of whether that leg is in front or behind (assuming i want untwisted stitches). That is the “secret” to demystifying combined knitting. So the only change is a slight difference in angle of insertion to make that happen, while everything else is the same. It really works quite well and once I got used to knitting and purling stitches mounted either way (which was a little awkward at first) i could knit and purl with nearly equal speed and ease or move rapidly between the two with minimal fuss and great economy of motion. Hope that helps someone!

      • S! This really helps me. Thankyou. I am not quite sure of my exact diagnosis yet but I do know that when going from knitting stockinette in the round and then knitting flat, my stitches seem to turn upside-down. They look Eastern uncrossed when in the round and Western when I have to start purling. I’m going to swatch myself a few samples before ripping back my current project! Thankyou!

        • Hi there! This explains a lot. I’m a crocheter first and so, western style knitting felt awkward and I couldn’t figure out how to hold the yarn so I could get good tension and fluidity. I just decided to wrap the yarn clockwise as I do in crochet and wala! No more issue yarn tension or fluidity. It just felt natural. I’d like to note that I’m left handed, but I crochet right handed and knit English/ Continental hybrid. I’ve only been knitting for a couple months and know that my style will morph as I get better at it. It’s what happened with my crochet as well. I just let my hands figure out how they like to do it and go with it! Good luck all. Happy yarn!

  3. Great summary! I started out knitting “English western” about 9 months ago, but over time started having some tension issues. Namely, my purl stitches were about twice as loose as my knit stitches. I looked for some ideas on fixing it and came upon Eastern uncrossed. I tried it briefly a couple months ago but didn’t care for it, though since switching to it two weeks ago, I haven’t looked back. I still knit English/right-handed, which I find easier with Eastern knits than left-handed/Continental, so perhaps that makes me a bit quirkier than other Eastern-style knitters.

    I mostly figured out the decreases on my own but I still haven’t quite got my increases down yet. I prefer lifted increases over M1 most of the time, and the LLI is just not working out for me, though I got the RLI easily enough. Google, YouTube, and Ravelry have turned up nothing for Eastern lifted increases. I see your blog hasn’t been updated in a while, but if you can offer some help, I would truly appreciate it!

  4. Hi, thanks for this conversion list, however, I am at a loss regarding how to knit the lifted increases in the combined and eastern style. Are they knitted in reverse as well?

  5. Thank you for this excellent explanation!! I’ve been researching for the past week to find an explanation of how to knit with this single ply Z twist yarn that untwists when I knit it Western counter clockwise. I am so glad to learn that I can throw the yarn clockwise and still get the same appearance. (I’m making a poncho that is mostly stockinette stitches so the untwisting of the yarn was resulting in varied widths of stitches as I knitted and the yarn untwisted.) Previously, I experimented with changing the direction I pulled the yarn from the skein (inside or outside) hoping that might solve the untwisting, but that yielded with the same results of the yarn separating. Just now I experimented with your directions and used the clockwise throw approach that resulted in solving the problem … no more untwisting. YAY!! This will be a new learning experience to become familiar with a different throw of the yarn, but, it indeed solves the problem of the yarn untwisting, splitting, and the varied yarn widths that mount on the needle! Thank you!!

  6. Thank you for the precise explanation! I’m just getting into knitting, and have only made a seed stitch scarf.

    I’ve been experimenting with a wide variety of styles to find one which suits me best, and I’ve settled on Eastern Uncrossed but was having trouble translating patterns. Your helpful explanation of the concepts of stitch orientation are invaluable! I’m grateful for your meticulousness; thank you!

  7. That’s for such a great explanation. I am left-handed, but was taught right-handed and English style. I’ve quit knitting many, many times because I have found it too awkward and painful for my hands. I’ve focused on crochet instead, but have always yearned to knit comfortably. Recently, i decided to try it left-handed and it feels so much more natural to me AND I naturally shifted to continental when I worked lefty (not even intentionally, just worked that way). I’m still finding the purl stitch a bit uncomfortable and inconsistent with tension, so I’m exploring Eastern uncrossed style. You explained it so well. My only barrier will be doing Eastern Uncrossed LEFT HANDED! That’s a lot of modifications I’ll have to make to most patterns (which are written for western, right-handed knitting!). Left is right, right is left … my brain will explode … BUT, my hands are wrists might finally find it comfortable to knit and I can make all the things I want. Wish me luck! Thanks again for your explanations.

  8. I have a quick question concerning ktfb and ptbl.

    When you say “… for Western knitting, you will be instructed to Ktbl (knit through the back loop … much like a normal Eastern Uncrossed knit stitch)”, do you mean that a western knitter, when knitting from the back loop will have to wrap the yarn clockwise instead of counter-clockwise?

    • Hi Amelie,
      If I understand your question correctly, it is in regrds to the discussion on twisted stitches. Let me see if I can clarify –
      Although it is *possible* to produce a twisted stitch by modifying the direction the yarn is wrapped, this modification is generally not called for done intentionally. The direction the yarn is wrapped is pretty much always considered a constant for your given knitting method (Western or Eastern Uncrossed). If a twisted stitch is desired, you will instead change how you insert the needle (for example, through the back of the loop if you are a Western knitter), but that would be the only modification … you would not wrap the yarn any differently. It’s one or the other, not both. Understanding that wrap direction is a factor that can change the look of your stitches is important, however, if you are wanting to intentionally twist stitches for decorative effect, or are converting pattern instructions for your given method, then it is the direction the needle is inserted that needs to be modified. Hope that helps!

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